Η ελιά είναι δένδρο αειθαλές και αιωνόβιο. Η καλλιέργεια της ελιάς περιορίζεται στις δύο εύκρατες ζώνες και κυρίως στην περιοχή της Μεσογείου η οποία έχει το 98% του παγκόσμιου φυτικού δυναμικού και παραγωγής. Οι καλλιεργητικές φροντίδες είναι λίγες και για τον λόγο αυτό επιβιώνει και σε ιδιαίτερα δυσπρόσιτες περιοχές.
The European olive tree (this is the olive tree that produces olive oil) has many varieties. There are about 130 varieties of olive trees with 50 of them being the most well known.
Some of these varieties are the result of a long-developing and adaptation process in the same micro-climates where other species grew due to lab development. Depending on the variety of the plant, olive trees can be categorized as small-fruit, medium-fruit, large-fruit and ornamental (non-fruiting).
Thassos has a Mediterranean climate favoring the cultivation of olive trees, both in flat and mountainous areas and enabling the production of fruit during the winter. In the area, there are olive trees more than 700 hundred years old.
The dominating variety of olive tree on Thassos is called throubolia or Thassian olive. It is mainly cultivated in Thasos and other areas like Attica, the Aegean Islands (Chios, Samos, Naxos) and Crete. It belongs to the middle-fruit variety of olive trees and it is suitable for consumption. The fruit is of medium size with an average weight of about 3-5gr, and an oil capacity up to 25% of the highest quality. The Thassian olive (throuba) can lose its bitterness by itself while maturing on the tree and therefore it is considered a unique delicacy for the Mediterranean table.